In an epicyclic or planetary gear train, several spur gears distributed evenly around the circumference run between a gear with internal teeth and a gear with exterior teeth on a concentric orbit. The circulation of the spur gear occurs in analogy to the orbiting of the planets in the solar system. This is how planetary gears acquired their name.
The parts of a planetary gear train could be divided into four main constituents.
The housing with integrated internal teeth is actually a ring gear. In nearly all cases the housing is fixed. The driving sun pinion is certainly in the center of the ring gear, and is coaxially organized with regards to the output. The sun pinion is usually attached to a clamping system in order to present the mechanical connection to the electric motor shaft. During procedure, the planetary gears, which will be mounted on a planetary carrier, roll between the sun pinion and the ring equipment. The planetary carrier also represents the end result shaft of the gearbox.
The sole purpose of the planetary gears is to transfer the mandatory torque. The amount of teeth has no effect on the tranny ratio of the gearbox. The quantity of planets may also vary. As the quantity of planetary gears heightens, the distribution of the load increases and then the torque which can be transmitted. Raising the quantity of tooth engagements likewise reduces the rolling electrical power. Since only the main total productivity needs to be transmitted as rolling vitality, a planetary equipment is extremely efficient. The good thing about a planetary equipment compared to an individual spur gear is based on this load distribution. Hence, it is possible to transmit great torques wit
h high efficiency with a compact style using planetary gears.
Provided that the ring gear has a continuous size, different ratios can be realized by different the quantity of teeth of sunlight gear and the amount of teeth of the planetary gears. The smaller the sun gear, the higher the ratio. Technically, a meaningful ratio selection for a planetary level is approx. 3:1 to 10:1, since the planetary gears and sunlight gear are extremely little above and below these ratios. Bigger ratios can be acquired by connecting a lot of planetary levels in series in the same ring gear. In this case, we talk about multi-stage gearboxes.
With planetary gearboxes the speeds and torques could be overlaid by having a ring gear that’s not fixed but is driven in virtually any direction of rotation. It is also possible to repair the drive shaft in order to grab the torque via the band equipment. Planetary gearboxes have grown to be extremely important in lots of areas of mechanical engineering.
They have grown to be particularly more developed in areas where high output levels and fast speeds must be transmitted with favorable mass inertia ratio adaptation. High transmission ratios can also easily be performed with planetary gearboxes. Because of the positive properties and small design, the gearboxes have many potential uses in commercial applications.
The benefits of planetary gearboxes:
Coaxial arrangement of input shaft and output shaft
Load distribution to several planetary gears
High efficiency due to low rolling power
Practically unlimited transmission ratio options because of mixture of several planet stages
Appropriate as planetary switching gear due to fixing this or that the main gearbox
Chance for use as overriding gearbox
Favorable volume output
Suitability for an array of applications
Epicyclic gearbox can be an automatic type gearbox where parallel shafts and gears set up from manual gear container are replaced with an increase of compact and more reliable sun and planetary kind of gears arrangement as well as the manual clutch from manual vitality train is substituted with hydro coupled clutch or torque convertor which made the tranny automatic.
The idea of epicyclic gear box is extracted from the solar system which is considered to the perfect arrangement of objects.
The epicyclic gearbox usually includes the P N R D S (Parking, Neutral, Reverse, Travel, Sport) modes which is obtained by fixing of sun and planetary gears in line with the need of the travel.
The different parts of Epicyclic Gearbox
1. Ring gear- It is a kind of gear which appears like a ring and also have angular minimize teethes at its inner surface ,and is positioned in outermost situation in en epicyclic gearbox, the inner teethes of ring gear is in constant mesh at outer stage with the group of planetary gears ,it is also referred to as annular ring.
2. Sun gear- It’s the equipment with angular cut teethes and is located in the middle of the epicyclic gearbox; the sun gear is in continuous mesh at inner stage with the planetary gears and is usually connected with the suggestions shaft of the epicyclic equipment box.
One or more sunshine gears can be utilized for attaining different output.
3. Planet gears- They are small gears found in between band and sun gear , the teethes of the planet gears are in constant mesh with the sun and the ring equipment at both inner and outer items respectively.
The axis of the planet gears are attached to the planet carrier which is carrying the output shaft of the epicyclic gearbox.
The planet gears can rotate about their axis and also can revolve between your ring and sunlight gear exactly like our solar system.
4. Planet carrier- It is a carrier fastened with the axis of the earth gears and is in charge of final transmission of the output to the productivity shaft.
The planet gears rotate over the carrier and the revolution of the planetary gears causes rotation of the carrier.
5. Brake or clutch band- These devices used to repair the annular gear, sun gear and planetary gear and is manipulated by the brake or clutch of the vehicle.
Working of Epicyclic Gearbox
The working principle of the epicyclic gearbox is based on the fact the fixing any of the gears i.e. sun gear, planetary gears and annular gear is done to get the essential torque or speed output. As fixing the above triggers the variation in gear ratios from great torque to high speed. So let’s observe how these ratios are obtained
First gear ratio
This provide high torque ratios to the automobile which helps the vehicle to move from its initial state and is obtained by fixing the annular gear which in turn causes the earth carrier to rotate with the power supplied to the sun gear.
Second gear ratio
This gives high speed ratios to the vehicle which helps the automobile to achieve higher speed throughout a travel, these ratios are obtained by fixing sunlight gear which in turn makes the earth carrier the motivated member and annular the travelling member in order to achieve high speed ratios.
Reverse gear ratio
This gear reverses the direction of the output shaft which reverses the direction of the vehicle, this gear is attained by fixing the planet gear carrier which makes the annular gear the influenced member and sunlight gear the driver member.
Note- More acceleration or torque ratios can be achieved by increasing the number planet and sun gear in epicyclic gear package.
High-speed epicyclic gears can be built relatively small as the power is distributed over a number of meshes. This benefits in a low power to fat ratio and, together with lower pitch collection velocity, contributes to improved efficiency. The small equipment diameters produce lower moments of inertia, significantly lowering acceleration and deceleration torque when beginning and braking.
The coaxial design permits smaller and therefore more cost-effective foundations, enabling building costs to be kept low or entire generator sets to be integrated in containers.
The reasons why epicyclic gearing can be used have been covered in this magazine, so we’ll expand on the topic in only a few places. Let’s get started by examining an important aspect of any project: cost. Epicyclic gearing is normally less expensive, when tooled properly. Being an wouldn’t normally consider making a 100-piece lot of gears on an N/C milling machine with a form cutter or ball end mill, one should not consider making a 100-piece large amount of epicyclic carriers on an N/C mill. To maintain carriers within sensible manufacturing costs they should be created from castings and tooled on single-purpose devices with multiple cutters simultaneously removing material.
Size is another aspect. Epicyclic gear pieces are used because they’re smaller than offset equipment sets because the load is usually shared among the planed gears. This makes them lighter and smaller sized, versus countershaft gearboxes. As well, when configured effectively, epicyclic gear pieces are more efficient. The following example illustrates these benefits. Let’s believe that we’re building a high-speed gearbox to fulfill the following requirements:
• A turbine gives 6,000 hp at 16,000 RPM to the input shaft.
• The productivity from the gearbox must travel a generator at 900 RPM.
• The design lifestyle is usually to be 10,000 hours.
With these requirements at heart, let’s look at three conceivable solutions, one involving a single branch, two-stage helical gear set. A second solution takes the original gear set and splits the two-stage reduction into two branches, and the third calls for utilizing a two-level planetary or superstar epicyclic. In this situation, we chose the star. Let’s examine each of these in greater detail, looking at their ratios and resulting weights.
The first solution-a single branch, two-stage helical gear set-has two identical ratios, produced from taking the square base of the final ratio (7.70). Along the way of reviewing this solution we recognize its size and pounds is very large. To lessen the weight we in that case explore the possibility of earning two branches of an identical arrangement, as seen in the second solutions. This cuts tooth loading and minimizes both size and fat considerably . We finally arrive at our third alternative, which is the two-stage superstar epicyclic. With three planets this gear train decreases tooth loading significantly from the initial approach, and a relatively smaller amount from option two (check out “methodology” at end, and Figure 6).
The unique style characteristics of epicyclic gears are a large part of why is them so useful, but these very characteristics can make designing them a challenge. In the next sections we’ll explore relative speeds, torque splits, and meshing factors. Our target is to create it easy for you to understand and work with epicyclic gearing’s unique style characteristics.
Relative Speeds
Let’s commence by looking at how relative speeds work together with different plans. In the star arrangement the carrier is fixed, and the relative speeds of the sun, planet, and band are simply dependant on the speed of 1 member and the amount of teeth in each equipment.
In a planetary arrangement the band gear is set, and planets orbit sunlight while rotating on the planet shaft. In this set up the relative speeds of sunlight and planets are dependant on the quantity of teeth in each equipment and the acceleration of the carrier.
Things get a bit trickier whenever using coupled epicyclic gears, since relative speeds might not be intuitive. It is therefore imperative to at all times calculate the acceleration of the sun, planet, and ring in accordance with the carrier. Understand that possibly in a solar arrangement where the sunshine is fixed it includes a speed marriage with the planet-it isn’t zero RPM at the mesh.
Torque Splits
When considering torque splits one assumes the torque to be divided among the planets equally, but this may well not be a valid assumption. Member support and the number of planets determine the torque split represented by an “effective” number of planets. This quantity in epicyclic sets designed with two or three planets is generally equal to using the amount of planets. When more than three planets are employed, however, the effective quantity of planets is always less than you see, the number of planets.
Let’s look in torque splits when it comes to set support and floating support of the customers. With set support, all users are backed in bearings. The centers of sunlight, band, and carrier will never be coincident due to manufacturing tolerances. Due to this fewer planets are simultaneously in mesh, resulting in a lower effective quantity of planets posting the strain. With floating support, one or two members are allowed a small amount of radial freedom or float, which allows the sun, band, and carrier to get a posture where their centers will be coincident. This float could possibly be less than .001-.002 in .. With floating support three planets will always be in mesh, resulting in a higher effective amount of planets sharing the load.
Multiple Mesh Considerations
At the moment let’s explore the multiple mesh factors that should be made when designing epicyclic gears. Primary we must translate RPM into mesh velocities and determine the number of load application cycles per unit of time for every member. The first rung on the ladder in this determination is to calculate the speeds of every of the members in accordance with the carrier. For example, if the sun equipment is rotating at +1700 RPM and the carrier is certainly rotating at +400 RPM the speed of sunlight gear relative to the carrier is +1300 RPM, and the speeds of world and ring gears could be calculated by that rate and the numbers of teeth in each of the gears. The make use of indicators to symbolize clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation is certainly important here. If the sun is rotating at +1700 RPM (clockwise) and the carrier is rotating -400 RPM (counter-clockwise), the relative acceleration between the two participants can be +1700-(-400), or +2100 RPM.
The next step is to identify the number of load application cycles. Because the sun and band gears mesh with multiple planets, the quantity of load cycles per revolution relative to the carrier will always be equal to the amount of planets. The planets, even so, will experience only one bi-directional load program per relative revolution. It meshes with sunlight and ring, however the load can be on opposite sides of the teeth, resulting in one fully reversed tension cycle. Thus the planet is considered an idler, and the allowable stress must be reduced 30 percent from the worthiness for a unidirectional load application.
As noted previously mentioned, the torque on the epicyclic users is divided among the planets. In analyzing the stress and existence of the users we must consider the resultant loading at each mesh. We find the idea of torque per mesh to end up being somewhat confusing in epicyclic gear research and prefer to look at the tangential load at each mesh. For example, in searching at the tangential load at the sun-world mesh, we take the torque on the sun gear and divide it by the powerful quantity of planets and the functioning pitch radius. This tangential load, combined with peripheral speed, is utilized to compute the power transmitted at each mesh and, modified by the load cycles per revolution, the life expectancy of every component.
In addition to these issues there may also be assembly complications that need addressing. For example, inserting one planet ready between sun and ring fixes the angular location of sunlight to the ring. Another planet(s) is now able to be assembled simply in discreet locations where the sun and band could be at the same time involved. The “least mesh angle” from the 1st planet that will accommodate simultaneous mesh of another planet is add up to 360° divided by the sum of the numbers of teeth in sunlight and the ring. As a result, in order to assemble more planets, they must end up being spaced at multiples of the least mesh position. If one wants to have equivalent spacing of the planets in a simple epicyclic set, planets may be spaced equally when the sum of the number of teeth in the sun and ring can be divisible by the amount of planets to an integer. The same guidelines apply in a substance epicyclic, but the fixed coupling of the planets gives another level of complexity, and right planet spacing may necessitate match marking of the teeth.
With multiple components in mesh, losses must be considered at each mesh as a way to measure the efficiency of the machine. Electricity transmitted at each mesh, not input power, can be used to compute power loss. For simple epicyclic units, the total ability transmitted through the sun-world mesh and ring-planet mesh may be significantly less than input power. This is among the reasons that simple planetary epicyclic models are more efficient than other reducer plans. In contrast, for most coupled epicyclic models total vitality transmitted internally through each mesh could be greater than input power.
What of ability at the mesh? For straightforward and compound epicyclic sets, calculate pitch line velocities and tangential loads to compute electrical power at each mesh. Ideals can be acquired from the earth torque relative speed, and the operating pitch diameters with sunlight and band. Coupled epicyclic sets present more complex issues. Components of two epicyclic pieces can be coupled 36 different ways using one insight, one productivity, and one response. Some plans split the power, although some recirculate ability internally. For these kinds of epicyclic models, tangential loads at each mesh can only just be determined through the use of free-body diagrams. Also, the factors of two epicyclic models could be coupled nine various ways in a series, using one type, one result, and two reactions. Let’s look at some examples.
In the “split-vitality” coupled set proven in Figure 7, 85 percent of the transmitted power flows to band gear #1 and 15 percent to band gear #2. The effect is that this coupled gear set could be scaled-down than series coupled models because the electricity is split between the two elements. When coupling epicyclic models in a series, 0 percent of the power will be transmitted through each established.
Our next case in point depicts a set with “vitality recirculation.” This equipment set happens when torque gets locked in the system in a way similar to what occurs in a “four-square” test procedure for vehicle drive axles. With the torque locked in the system, the horsepower at each mesh within the loop improves as speed increases. Therefore, this set will knowledge much higher electrical power losses at each mesh, resulting in substantially lower unit efficiency .
Body 9 depicts a free-body diagram of a great epicyclic arrangement that experiences electric power recirculation. A cursory analysis of this free-body diagram clarifies the 60 percent productivity of the recirculating collection shown in Figure 8. Since the planets are rigidly coupled together, the summation of forces on the two gears must equivalent zero. The drive at sunlight gear mesh outcomes from the torque source to sunlight gear. The induce at the second ring gear mesh results from the productivity torque on the ring equipment. The ratio being 41.1:1, end result torque is 41.1 times input torque. Adjusting for a pitch radius difference of, say, 3:1, the pressure on the next planet will be around 14 times the pressure on the first planet at the sun gear mesh. As a result, for the summation of forces to equate to zero, the tangential load at the first ring gear should be approximately 13 moments the tangential load at the sun gear. If we presume the pitch brand velocities to be the same at sunlight mesh and ring mesh, the energy loss at the band mesh will be around 13 times higher than the power loss at sunlight mesh .